Landcare Salix Identification Key

Posted on May 30, 2019

The key is on the Manaaki Whenua website at, for public use. Updates will be made as new information such as name changes come in. The key now has 56 entities (species and hybrids) (see list below) and 2,300 images.

The key opens in any web browser in any operating system. The key will open on a mobile phone but the print will be too small to read.

Complete list of the 56 taxonomic entities included in the Salix key:

Salix subgenus Salix - tree willows

  • Salix alba
  • Salix gooddingii - Goodding's black willow
  • Salix lasiandra subsp. lasiandra - Pacific willow
  • Salix matsudana
  • 'Tortuosa' - tortured willow
  • Salix nigra - black willow
  • Salix pentandra - bay-leaf willow

Hybrids in subgenus Salix

  • Salix alba x lasiandra
  • Salix x fragilis (S. alba x S. euxina) - crack willow
  • f. vitellina - golden willow
  • Salix x fragilis x S. nigra
  • Salix lasiandra x S. pentandra
  • Salix matsudana x S. alba
  • Salix matsudana x S. lasiandra
  • Salix matsudana x S. pentandra
  • Salix x meyeriana (S. euxina x S. pentandra)
  • Salix x pendulina (S. babylonica x S. euxina) - weeping willows
  • f. pendulina (S. alba x S. babylonica) - weeping willow
  • f. salamonii (Salix x fragilis f. vitellina x S. babylonica) - golden weeping willow

Salix subgenus Vetrix - shrub willows, osiers, sallows

  • Salix acutifolia - violet willow
  • Salix aegyptiaca - musk willow
  • Salix appenina
  • Salix atrocinerea - rusty sallow
  • Salix basaltica (incl. S. cantabrica) - sage-leaf willow
  • Salix caprea - goat willow
  • Salix cardiophylla
  • Salix cinerea - grey sallow
  • Salix daphnoides - violet willow
  • Salix eleagnos - hoary willow, bitter willow, rosemary willow
  • Salix eriocephala (incl. S. rigida) - heart-leaf willow
  • Salix gmelinii Salix gracilistyla
  • Salix hookeriana - dune willow
  • Salix humboldtiana
  • Salix lasiolepis - arroyo willow
  • Salix magnifica
  • Salix melanopsis or exigua (S. fluviatilis)
  • Salix myricoides (= S. glaucophylloides) - blue-leaved willow
  • Salix myrsinifolia (incl S. atrovirens, S. nigricans) - dark-leaved willow
  • Salix petiolaris
  • Salix purpurea - purple willow
  • Salix reinii
  • Salix repens (incl. S. arenaria) - creeping willow
  • Salix schwerinii
  • Salix tetrasperma
  • Salix triandra - almond-leaved willow
  • Salix udensis
  • Salix viminalis - osier, silky osier, hemp willow

Hybrids in subgenus Vetrix

  • Salix x auritoides (S. purpurea x aurita)
  • Salix x calodendron (S. caprea x S. cinerea x S. viminalis) - holm willow
  • Salix x dichroa (S. aurita x S. purpurea)
  • Salix x forbyana (S. purpurea x S. viminalis)
  • Salix lasiolepis x S. udensis
  • Salix x reichardtii (S. caprea x S. cinerea) - pussy willow
  • Salix x seringeana (S. elaeagnos x S. caprea)
  • Salix x austriaca (S. cinerea x S. purpurea)
  • Salix cinerea x S. purpurea x S. gracilistyla (“S. pontederana x S. gracilistyla”)