Document Library

An index to our poplar and willow documentation

Pole planting of poplar and willows for erosion prevention on Wairarapa farms

Pole planting of poplars and willows is one of the ways Greater Wellington helps to prevent erosion. Almost one million trees, shrubs and grasses will be planted across the Wellington Region in 2023.

Topics: Erosion Control; Poplar Information; Willow Information;

Document Type: Videos;

Report 2 for FGLT

Allan Frazer, Ian McIvor

A report for the Forest Growers Levy Trust Project. The extent of NZ poplar plantations, silviculture, marketing and local use of poplar timber. Establishment of a Poplar Action Group within NZ Farm Forestry Association (NZFFA). ‘Stage one of a three stage review and analysis of the potential of poplars as commercial timber species in New Zealand.’

Topics: Poplar Information; Timber;

Document Type: Publications;

Report 1 for FGLT: Poplar Cultivation

Ian McIvor

A report for the Forest Growers Levy Trust Project. Poplar cultivation: a comparison of international and national activity. The extent of NZ poplar plantations, silviculture, marketing and local use of poplar timber.

Topics: Poplar Information; Timber;

Document Type: Publications;

How poplar trees influence water flow on slopes - Research Brief 19

Water flow on pastoral slopes following rainfall transfers sediment and contributes to slope erosion. Pasture cover reduces flow rate allowing more time for water absorption. Trees also influence water flow in ways that complement and enhance the effect of pasture.

Topics: Erosion Control; Farms; Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Performance of plantation poplar on the Rakaia River in Mid-Canterbury - Research Brief 18

This research brief reports on the performance of poplar clones in a trial established in 1990 by Environment Canterbury on the banks of the Rakaia River. The trial was to compare the performance of five New Zealand-bred poplar clones, with the ‘Veronese’ (Populus deltoides × P. nigra) poplar clone.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Do I pollard my poplars? - Research Brief 17

What is pollarding? Pollarding is reducing a tree to a stump by removing all branches. For poplars on farms the stump is left at 2 m height so animals cannot eat off the new shoots.

Topics: Cultivation; Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Effect of fertilization on growth of poplars established from poles on farmland - Research Brief 16

A single deposit of fertiliser, either N (80g urea), P (180g superphosphate) or both was supplied at 30 cm upslope of the pole and at 15 cm depth to ‘Veronese’ poplar trees on sloping pastoral land two months after the trees were planted as poles.

Topics: Cultivation; Nutrition and Fertiliser; Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Pollarding wide-spaced poplar trees on pastoral hillslopes alters root development - Research Brief 15

Water flow on pastoral slopes following rainfall transfers sediment and contributes to slope erosion. Pasture cover reduces flow rate allowing more time for water absorption. Trees also influence water flow in ways that complement and enhance the effect of pasture.

Topics: Erosion Control; Farms; Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Root development in poplar and willow clones (a pot study) - Research Brief 05

A range of willow (Salix) and poplar (Populus) clones were used in the study. This information is important for river engineers, land managers and landowners seeking to match planting material to situation.

Topics: Erosion Control; Rivers; Root Systems; Poplar Information; Willow Information;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Influence of tree shading by Populus ×euramericana ‘Veronese’ - Research Brief 02

We measured and modelled pasture production over a 10-month period under poplar trees aged either 11 or 22 years (TP) and in open pasture (OP), to determine the effect of spaced conservation trees on pasture production.

Topics: Fodder; Cultivation; Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Wood production of ’Kawa’ poplar in an agroforestry trial - Research Brief 14

Poplar is widely planted internationally as a forestry and agroforestry species. The poplar cultivar ‘Kawa’ has been planted in Northland as an agroforestry tree. ‘Kawa’ has a higher wood density than most other poplar cultivars, with a straight stem.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Effect of slope position on poplar growth - Research Brief 13

Trunk diameter data from two wide spaced poplar trials planted in rows, with within row spacing of 10 m, at 20 m apart up a slope are used to provide insights into how slope position affects poplar growth.

Topics: Erosion Control; Root Systems; Cultivation; Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Influence of soil type on poplar root development - Research Brief 12

Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra) Trees were grown from 3 m-long poles on pastoral hill slopes in three different soil types, pumice, sandy loam and clay loam, differing in their bulk density.

Topics: Erosion Control; Root Systems; Cultivation; Poplar Information;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Willows at work in the catchment - Research Brief 11

Natural water catchments extend from mountains to sea, collecting water on the way. The erosive power of flowing water increases during periods of high water runoff, e.g. rainstorms. The heavier the rainfall the greater the water volumes and velocity the greater the erosive forces.

Topics: Erosion Control; Farms; Rivers; Willow Information;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Willows, poplars and fodder - Research Brief 10

Poplar and willow provide fodder of sufficient quality and quantity to warrant using then as supplements for feeding to livestock during summer droughts. In addition to the feed quality, the tannins and phenolic glucosides present in the leaves provide pharmaceuticals benefits to stock.

Topics: Fodder; Poplar Information; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Milling poplar on the farm for fencing and yards construction - Research Brief 09

Farm milled poplar provides valuable wood products for both on-farm and off-farm use e.g. treated posts, battens and timber. On-farm, the timber was used for railings and gates in both cattle and sheep yards.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Newsletter - August 2022

The Poplar and Willow Research Trust August 2022 newsletter

Topics: Poplar Information; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Newsletters;

Effect of giant willow aphid on growth of young willows - Research Brief 08

Two wide-spaced trials were planted on each of two farms in Tararua District to evaluate the effect of sap-sucking Tuberolachnus salignus, giant willow aphid (GWA), on ‘Tangoio’ tree willow growth

Topics: Pests; Giant Willow Aphid Tuberolachnus salignus ; Willow Information;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Poplar trees and soil properties - Research Brief - 07

This study investigated the effects of poplar tree spacing on soil properties (infiltration rate, bulk density, soil moisture content and soil organic matter content) in two Nelder tree plots, with different soil types.

Topics: Cultivation; Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Willows affect pastoral soil properties - Research Brief 06

Willow trees planted for soil conservation confer beneficial effects on the soil through canopy litter, roots and shade.

Topics: Erosion Control; Farms; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Climate change and growth of Poplar and Willow trees - Research Brief 04

We evaluated the response of Populus and Salix trees to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature, and the interaction of these factors with drought, in a controlled environment.

Topics: Poplar Information; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Killing old Poplar trees using chemicals - Research Brief 03

Large or old poplar trees considered a safety risk can be poisoned, killed and left standing, using an appropriate herbicide applied to the conducting tissue in the trunk.

Topics: Poplar Information;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Poplars and Willows as soil conservation trees in New Zealand - Research Brief 01

This study investigated farmers’ perspectives and experiences of poplar and willow trees planted on their farms for erosion reduction.

Topics: Erosion Control; Poplar Information; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Research Briefs;

Factsheet 7: Poplar Sawfly: Cladius grandis

Have you seen this unusual insect on your poplar trees? If you have spotted it we want to know! There are no other yellow/ orange caterpillars with black spots that feed on poplar leaves.

Topics: Pests; Poplar Information;

Document Type: Fact Sheets;

Root excavation of Salix matsudana × alba ‘Moutere’ willow on the Hutt River 2018

Ian McIvor (Plant & Food Research) and Mike Jensen (Greater Wellington Regional Council)

Root excavation of Salix matsudana × alba ‘Moutere’ willow on the Hutt River, Wellington, New Zealand and on the Rangitikei River, Ohakea, New Zealand

Topics: Erosion Control; Rivers; Root Systems; Willow Information;

Document Type: Publications;

Steph Sloan Radio Interview

Radio interview with our trustee Steph Sloan and Country Sport Breakfast announcer Lee Piper about the launch of the poplar and willow ambassadors.

Topics: Poplar Information; Willow Information;

Document Type: Audio;

The Ambassadors Podcast

Kate Taylor

​An interview with trustee Steph Sloan about the work of the Poplar and Willow Research Trust and the launch of farmer ambassadors around the country.

Topics: Poplar Information; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Audio;

Newsletter - March 2020

This newsletter providing an update of the work of the Trust and other poplar and willow matters. As we write, extremely dry weather is covering many parts of the country and poplars and willows are playing an important role in offering a valuable feed source. However, we do need to increase awareness of this among farmers.

Topics: Poplar Information; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Newsletters;

Photos of the 16 Demonstration Poplars at age 2 years

Photos of the 16 Demonstration Poplars at age 2 years showing branching arrangement, where the top shoots emerge from, and shoot dominance.

Topics: Poplar Information;

Document Type: Publications;

Poplar demonstration - watch out for it!

The purpose: to show the features of different hybrid poplar clones being bred in New Zealand for soil stabilisation, shelter, shade, riverbank protection, timber, and carbon credits.

Topics: Poplar Information;

Document Type: Publications;

Poplars and willows in the Waitetuna Valley

Kate Taylor

Trees of all ages and species cover Mike and Madeline Moss’s Raglan farm… helping promote the message of planting the right tree in the right place. Journalist Kate Taylor visited on an overcast winter’s day to see for herself.

Topics: Erosion Control; Farms; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Publications;

Early root development in 'Tangoio' tree willow planted as poles

McIvor I, Jones T, Ward R

Several studies have reported on root development of poplars of various ages growing on pastoral slopes but little is known of root development of willows grown on pastoral hillslopes. This report presents new information about root development in willow trees grown from poles.

Topics: Erosion Control; Root Systems; Willow Information;

Document Type: Publications;

New Willow Identification Key

Landcare Research

A new Salix key is on the Manaaki Whenua website at https://keys.landcareresearch.co.nz/nzsalix/.

Topics: Willow Information;

Document Type: Publications;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: the full length video

Combination of all eleven videos on milling poplar trees on the farm and uses for the wood.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: a summary

A summary on milling poplar trees on the farm. There is a lot of valuable high quality timber available on farms that can be milled and used on the farm.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: using the mill

Some tips on how to best mill poplar logs on the farm.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: more about logs

Small logs can also produce valuable timber, and larger logs can have hidden beauty once you cut them.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: milling your own logs

You can be surprised with beautiful grain that can be used for furniture or panels.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: assessing trees

How to assess trees in the field for suitability for milling.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: poplar posts

Sawn fence posts - poplar doesn't take treatment when unsawn, so if you want to treat them you need to cut them first.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: why mill your own trees

Why mill your own poplar trees? It's cheaper than buying your own timber, and you can mill to your own exact specifications.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: children's toys and furniture

Poplar doesn't split or splinter easily, and is also light weight and creates easy turning parts so is ideal for making children's toys. It can also be used for cooking utensils as it is a "non-taint" timber, and normal furniture for similar reasons.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: truck decking

Poplar is ideal for truck decking as it doesn't splinter easily.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: producing battens from milled poplar

Producing battens from milled poplar can be achieved. The process of drying is the most important part - even though it dries very quickly it has to be done properly. Preparation for treatment is discussed.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

New Zealand poplar farm milling: an introduction

Introduction - older trees are better for milling, not just done away with as happens on many farms. Poplar can be milled on the farm to create usable poplar timber, with some farm uses.

Topics: Poplar Information; Trees for the Farm; Timber; Farm milling & uses;

Document Type: Videos;

Newsletter - December 2018

Once a year the Poplar and Willow Research Trust produces a Newsletter for distribution to partners and associates who are supportive of the work of the Trust.

Topics: Poplar Information; Willow Information; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Newsletters;

Are Poplars and Willows in Your Farm Plan?

Checklist of advantages of using poplars and willows in your farm plan

Topics: Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Publications;

Shelter and riparian belts on farms

Ian McIvor

Shelterbelts and riparian buffers have many advantages on farms

Topics: Erosion Control; Rivers; Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Presentations;

Guide to Erosion Control/spaced Plantings Being Eligible to Enter the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)  

Woodnet Forestry, Marginal Land & Carbon Consultancy Services

A guide to erosion control/spaced plantings being eligible to enter the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).

Topics: Trees for the Farm;

Document Type: Publications;

Pakaraka Station Field Day Report 2018

The multiple benefits of poplars and willows on hill country farms have been shared at a field day in Wairarapa.

Topics: Erosion Control; Farms;

Document Type: Videos;